New Earswick was built on land bought by Joseph Rowntree to provide " houses which shall be artistic in appearance, sanitary and thoroughly well built and yet within the means of working men earning about 25 shillings a week " . The Arts and Crafts houses were designed by Parker & Unwin; the first houses completed in 1904 when the Rowntree Trust was set up to manage the estate. The village pioneered the architecture and layout used in later Parker & Unwin communities and three house designs served as prototypes for post WW1 municipal housing.
The large gardens, public amenity spaces, social and educational facilities, tree lined streets, cul-de-sacs, hedgerow boundaries came to epitomise the ideal for garden estate design.
The original village has now been much enlarged and remains a vibrant community; however some of the later architecture is less imaginative.
Conservation Area since 1991. The protected area includes most of the original village and contains a high number of listed buildings.